Most recently, genetic scientists have done some research into the genetic composition of different castes in India to see if there is any genetic difference between them. Since the separation of castes in India has been so rigid, scientists started with this assumption that long time isolation of each group may have shown in their DNA. The rigidity of the system still present in rural India has also made many wonder exactly how long castes have existed.
The study by geneticist David Reich and colleagues, published in the September 24 issue of Nature, takes a new approach to understanding the genetic history of India.
Reichs team examined more than 550,000 points across all segments of the human genome. In doing so, they hoped to obtain a more complete picture of Indian genetic history. The research team analyzed the DNA of 132 individuals from India and neighboring regions, dividing them into 25 distinct groups based on geography, caste and language. They calculated how genetically closed each of these groups were. In the caste system it is rare to marry someone from another class, making caste societies very closed, or endogamous. If this endogamy continues over many generations, it will leave a behind a genetic signature for scientists to discover.Reich and his team found such a signature, indicating a long history of endogamy in several of the groups. In fact, the research team calculated that the DNA of six of the groups can be traced back to just a few individuals who lived anywhere from 30 to more than 100 generations ago. Assuming a generation time of 25 years, that establishes the existence of the caste system in the range of 750 to more than 2,500 years ago long before the British colonial era.
In a second analysis, Reich and his team examined how ancient migrations could have influenced the formation of castes. First the researchers divided the Indian groups into language families: Indo-European and Dravidian. Dravidian tongues, like Tamil and Malayalam, are mainly spoken in southern India and are believed to be a remnant of languages spoken by some of the earliest inhabitants of the region. Indo-European languages, like Punjabi and Urdu, are more common in the north. They are believed to have arrived with a migration of farmers from southwestern Asia or the Near East about 9,000 years ago.Reich and his colleagues then compared the genetics of each of the Dravidian and Indo-European groups to a sample of European DNA. The team reasoned that, if Indo-European groups were really descended from the farmers, they would show more genetic similarity to the Europeans than the Dravidians.Not surprisingly, the authors hypothesis held true. The Indo-European speakers, like the Kashmiri Pandit and Vaish, were more genetically similar to Europeans. And because the majority of the upper castes speak Indo-European languages, while the lower ones tend to be Dravidian speakers, there could be a relationship between the arrival of Indo-European people and the formation of caste structure. Further evidence that an ancient caste system has permeated through India for thousands of years.